This is my last blog post. Thanks for listening to me explore public communication campaigns. As I read through my blog post I can see that I have become more familiar to the social marketing and communication campaigns models. I am most surprised at how each step in the process is so in depth or at least should be for a successful campaign. As a nurse for so many years I do not view the world in such a broad manner. I found myself having a hard time wrapping my head around the concept of the public. Like I have said before I am used to one on one interactions with patients and with health education. I know how to communicate well with lots of different people inter personally, however to attempt to reach the masses is intimidating. The limited funds and the possibility to fail is all very risky. I think learning the campaign development process in steps has helped me lose some of the fear in developing a campaign. The class broke it down, had great methods with case studies to give real life examples, and pointed out similarities to social marketing and commercial marketing. I would have never in a million years have thought of that comparison. However how would I coming from an inpatient hospital setting with no marketing background. I have come to appreciate my experiences and powers as a bedside nurse. It makes me feel blessed to make a difference in a families life one family at a time. I am also excited to use what I have experienced in nursing and to find ways to apply it to public health. I was never sure if RN/MPH would go hand in hand, but after this class I feel more confident that it does! It seems that the world of public communication campaigns/social marketing is headed in a direction of focusing on smaller audiences, learning as much as you can about your audience, and making smaller obtainable goals. It seems that there is more evidence based research utilized which goes hand and hand with nursing practice…
With my MPH and my nursing background, I hope to become more involved with Global health, or health communication in developing countries. While looking through the Ted Talks and other examples of health campaigns in developing countries, I came up on this Ted talk with Melissa Gates. It is worth a watch I really liked some points I want to discuss in this blog.
I like that she uses the success of Coca Cola making it to these small villages all over the world , even though the product itself is not the best for you, and something to look at with social marketing. How can we make the behavior change that we are trying to educate and assist these developing countries as successful as the product of Coca Cola in their country? I think the concept really supports what we have read and discussed in class. Some things she mentioned is that Coca Cola markets specifically to each area. This supports situation analysis, and research of the audience you are wanting to reach in your communication campaign. Identifying factors influencing behavior and adoption of new behavior is key to marketing a behavior as much as it is to a product like Coca Cola.
Next she talks about educating and empowering the motivated, entrepreneur types within the community. I feel that this is key to change. The community will respond so much faster and more whole wholeheartedly if the information is distributed to them by people they relate to, and who maybe inspire them. I think that all comes back to finding the correct product, meaning one that is practical and understandable to the community. It also focuses on the correct place by educating community members to be the provider of the product. Price is also mentioned in the way the communication campaign and product is advertised needs to promote benefits in a manner that is understandable to the community. Promotion again is educating community members on the distributing the messages and even providing the education and services to the community.
The next Ted talk I found inspiring in regards to effective social marketing is about looking at decreasing high blood pressure/heart disease through barber shops that men use regularly.
Joseph Ravenell is a physician who is inspired by campaigns like Project Brotherhood, which again like the above Ted talk is about focusing on places that the target audience uses on a regular bases. This in theory promotes familiarity and safety to open up discussions and then to deliver education of behavior changes. Joseph as a physician has seen an improvement in black mens heart health just by having health care workers go to on a regular basis their social hubs in their communities. Again this talk is about empowering communities to address their own health inequities. As a nurse this is a position I am a participant everyday at work. I help those who deliver premature and ill infants in my community learn how to succeed in the best possible manner the situation they have been given. I interact with families of all different ethnicity and socioeconomic levels and I have learned from experience that in order for my education to be effective I must educate myself on their learning styles, resources, and perceptions as much as I can.
My list of Ted talks and documentaries could go on and on. It is an exciting time in public health and health care. Innovation and positive change I believe is going to happen in our global world. I may be an optimist, but someone has to believe that their are effective solutions for problems.
My next blog post will be about the budget! We all no budgets are hard to follow, nearly impossible it seems. So instead of focusing on the negative of budgets I am going to look a little more in depth the World Bicycle Relief. I love bicycling and I never knew until taking this class that this organization (website link provided) existed. The World Bicycle relief is a non profit organization. It provides bicycles to developing countries where distance is a barrier to opportunities in education, healthcare, and economic growth. While looking at the website and comparing it to the section in the reading that describes nonprofits, I would consider the organization a combination of a community foundation and a corporate foundation. The website is really easy to navigate, and the financials seem to be very clearly broken down. 57% of it’s donations are from individuals which I think is amazing! 37% of their donations is from it’s corporate supporters and 6% is from revenue they obtain from sales of stickers, bags, etc. with the WBR logo. The revenue is then put back in to the company.
This organization is an amazing example of effective social marketing. It has effective components of product,price and place and promotion. The product is obviously bicycles. Bicycles to us in developed country is a form of entertainment,exercise, and transportation, to the areas that this organization focuses on it is a form of reliable transportation. The transportation provides these individuals the ability to access healthcare, education, and economic opportunities. Having access to these 3 things will improve self efficacy and improve economic growth and sustainability. The product in this organization is very thought out. Here is an image below…
The Buffalo Bicycle is engineered for more tasks which is beneficial to rural communities. It can support big loads and passengers over long distances in remote areas. The short dipping top tube is preferred for both men and women. The center stand also simplifies loading for heavy and bulky cargo.
Next lets look at the price component of this campaign. The parts to repair the Buffalo Bicycle are available to the communities that the bikes are distributed. There is also a Field Mechanic Training program provided and to date over 1,000 field mechanics have been trained and that offers riders in these communities access to local maintenance and parts. The spare parts of the Buffalo Bicycles are expensive because to the bikes durability so WBR has added education on simple maintenance and better riding behavior to help the bikes last longer.
The place component of this campaign is the areas where foot travel is a huge deterrent to individuals reaching education, health care, and commerce opportunities. Individuals can ride a bike 4x the distance of someone walking, the capacity of carrying goods increases by 5x, and for every ten miles traveled a bicycle saves three hours. They have distributed bikes in Africa, South America, an Southeast Asia.
The promotion component is providing not only the bikes to the communities, but also the parts, training on maintenance and repair therefore making promotion more sustainable. The fundraising offices are in 5 different countries, and they have had great measurable impact on the communities they have reached. They have delivered more than 300,000 bicycles in 10 years! This is an organization that is effective and sustainable. I feel it’s design should be looked at for inspiration when learning about social marketing.
The next step I am going to explore in developing a social marketing campaign is monitoring and evaluation. Monitoring is measurements you take before the end of your campaign. It can determine if mid course corrections need to occur to help with the success of your reaching your goals. Evaluation is a measurement that gives you the final results.
With both monitoring and evaluating you look to see if you have met your goals for the changes in knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs for your target audience. In the reading they talked about unintended consequences of the campaign that may have developed. This I think is a good thing to pay attention to, and I wonder if it is often overlooked due to evaluation focusing so much on statistics rather then qualitative feedback. I have researched a few campaigns that suffered lots of criticism because of the fear they induced. From earlier in my blog, when I was just starting to learn about public communication campaigns I wrote about the fear induced with the Milwaukee co sleeping /SIDS prevention campaign. The images above are a simplistic approach to scare parents into not co sleeping which in theory would decrease the SIDS rate in Milwaukee which had an abnormally high infant mortality rate. The campaign wanted to change knowledge, behavior, and beliefs through fear alone. The following link to this attachment parenting article, is a good example of unintended consequences. This article has some valid points that I would agree with as a NICU nurse who works with new parents. Some of the points that I agree with reiterates that there is more then just sleeping with your baby to be lazy, irresponsible, and dangerous. There are strong emotions, living situations, and cultural beliefs that make this issue like all public health issues a little tricky. I am sure that the health department was trying to reach a segment of the population in Milwaukee that had a high rate of SIDS, however the mass media billboard ads did not work well with all of the residents of Milwaukee, and even though it may have worked on some it just caused distrust and resentment towards the health department which is not good a good result in my opinion.
Monitoring and evaluation again occur at pre campaign, during the campaign, and post-campaign. All the measurements are important and worth the time and money. I found it interesting all the different ways to measure throughout these phases of the campaign. Non randomized control groups completing surveys before, during and after the campaign seemed an effective monitoring and evaluation tool to me. Qualitative surveys help understand subjective information about the campaign. I feel like the article I linked above with the Milwaukee co bedding campaign is an example qualitative feedback. I also thought records and databases would be a very useful indicator of effectiveness of a campaign. For example, with the Milwaukee co bedding campaign records and databases could show you many infants died from co bedding and SIDS before the campaign, during the campaign, and after the campaign. Just like we explored in the research step, the step of monitoring and evaluating is just as important as the creative strategies. It is also good to make your monitoring and evaluation plans before you plan your budget therefore allowing for enough funds to cover thorough and effective monitoring and evaluation.With the information from good research techniques and good evaluating techniques we can learn how to make our budgets go farther and to effectively help more people make beneficial behavior changes which will positively effect our world.
The next step of our campaign design is another step involved in promotion of your message. The question asked is what are the best communication channels to reach my target audience. When choosing the appropriate communication channels timing and cost are major influences. I am going to look at some communication channels in regards to teen suicide prevention. The first communication channel I will look at is the Public Service Announcement, also known as the PSA which can be considered unpaid advertising. Here is a PSA increasing awareness and preventing teen suicide with the EmptyChair campaign. It represents the missing student and how their absence is noticed and does affect the entire community. It encourages students and members of the community to reach out and talk to others and report any suicidal ideation to counselors or teachers or adults who can help.
PSAs are a less expensive mass media communication channel. They are either played on television or radio. You want the PSA to be of high quality so it’s attractive to the network and to increase the chances of getting a good playing time. If your budget limits your design abilities, you can look for sponsors without conflicting interests to help fund the design and even help pay for a better placement time of the ad. The local television and radio networks are where you will go to establish a relationship. These networks are going to be most interested in topics that their viewing population cares about. This PSA I think would reach the target audience more effectively if it was played during shows that teens and their families watch, or radio stations that play music that teens and their parents listen to on a regular basis.
The most familiar and utilized communication channel is printed material. There are lots of different forms of written materials. Written materials could be brochures, booklets, calendars, and bumper stickers to name a few. Below is an example of a suicide prevention bumper sticker you could hand out at any middle school or high school event.
Lets look at some non traditional communication channels. One that struck my interest is social media as a communication channel. Facebook and Instagram for example have become a social norm. People communicate locally and internationally though social media. They can view both commercial and social marketing on social media. There are so many advantages about social marketing on social media such as reaching the interested audience via the audiences ability to follow the campaign links on social media. They are even able to share the links to the campaign to people the audience feel would benefit most from the information. This can assist in researching for your target and also reaching target audience a little more efficient. I found this example below of how facebook has become involved in the suicide prevention.
You can now seek help for yourself or for people you are worried about through facebook. Most suicide prevention campaigns encourage people to talk to someone if they are feeling down, overwhelmed, or suicidal which can now occur confidentially on facebook. This I believe can be even more effective then providing online support through internet searches, or hotlines. Individuals reaching or being reached by facebook already have an account so it seems like it takes away some of the effort and unfamiliarity. With the advancement of technology I believe our traditional communication channels will be replaced with social media and app technology. However I still believe the need for research of communication channels for social marketing campaigns will be an ongoing and innovative journey, which will continue to develop new and more effective channels year after year.
My next blog post will be about promotion. With the development of our message strategy in our campaign process we want to figure out what behavior do you want your target audience to do, know, and believe. Lets look at some domestic violence campaign’s messages.
First I ask myself when exploring promotion, What do I want my target audience to know? The above message is a good example of that concept. The statistics gives the audience the information and therefore knowledge that 2 women die every week from domestic violence. This gives the audience the knowledge that domestic violence is real, frequent, and we need to be aware.
The next message strategy question is what do you want your target audience to do? From this ad I gather the “do” is don’t be silent with friends you suspect are victims of domestic violence, talk to them, ask them about it. This gives the audience an action for their knowledge. This again promotes the message by creating knowledge about the issue and what you can do about it.
The final concept of message strategy is what do you want your audience to believe? I feel this image is a good example of a message of” belief”. We are saying no to domestic violence as a community and we can stand next to those who are abused and believe we can stop the cycle of abuse.
Some other aspects of promotion are some key creative tips in your message. I have found some message images that I felt contained those creative strengths regarding domestic violence campaigns.
- Keep it clear and simple. The above image has simple statements with an action included. Recognize abuse, respond to abuse, and refer the abused.
2. Focus on Audience Benefits.
The benefit here in this message is that if you seek help early in Family Violence you can avoid destroying lives of all the family members involved, therefore they all benefit.
3. When using fear, follow up with solutions and use credible sources.
The question if your children respect you or fear you is eliciting fear in the parent. Do they think their power is good power? The follow up with resources for men to have the strength to stop domestic violence is credible and a action/solution they can perform confidentially.
4. Try for messages that are vivid, concrete, and personal.
Here we have Kim Kardashian with obvious signs of physical abuse. That is vivid since she is a women in our culture that is looked up to for her looks and power. This message is concrete because it is to the point about breaking the silence of domestic violence is the right action regardless of who you are and that silence is what the perpetrator wants, that is their strength. This message is personal because it states that no woman is immune from domestic violence, meaning it is all women’s issues if it is occurring.
5. Make messages easy to remember.
The NO MORE campaign against Domestic Violence is the same visual of the NO MORE with an image of a celebrity. This is easy for audiences to recognize wherever and whenever they see it.
6. Have a little fun sometimes.
There is nothing funny or fun about violence. However the image of Cinderella as an abuse victim is a little more lighthearted (if you can say that) then an image of a human. However this works as as message because it is someone little girls most likely once idolized and now this is what has happened to their dreams of love and a relationship.
Those were some of the creative tips when promoting your message/campaign that were mentioned in the class reading. I find it interesting to have one visual say so much, and it is nice to have guidelines on what the visual possesses in means of strategy and therefore hopefully giving it more strength and effectiveness. When a message has more effectiveness it can and will reach more people!
We have now arrived at the stage of the campaign planning process where we get to use our creativity and hard earned wealth of knowledge from our research! This to me is the fun part mainly because it seems more active. What product would we use to encourage behavior change in out target audience? Where would we place this product and what are the costs and savings , not the campaign developer, but the target audience.
I am going to look at health campaigns that promote increased breastfeeding rates. This campaign ad below seems to be a presentation of the benefits of breast milk as a product for the baby. It lowers the risks of ear infections, diarrhea, and pneumonia. I like how this can be breast milk pumped from the breast of from direct breastfeeding. A large deterrent to breastfeeding is not being able to leave the baby, or not being able to have the dad or other family members help feed the baby. This focuses more on the substance of breast milk rather then the action. I would say that this campaign ad uses breast milk as the core product of the campaign.
These above campaign ads are a great example of the price of the product of breast milk. The top image is an inhaler and a bottle nipple. This ad I feel promotes the non monetary cost of future discomfort to your baby by putting them at an increased risk for respiratory diseases. The next one mentions if you don’t breastfeed your baby your baby will suffer the discomfort of an increased risk of Type 2 Diabetes later in life. These diseases are attempting to convince the audience into breastfeeding for increase non-monetary benefits during their babies lifetime which plays on parents wanting their children to have the best opportunity in the future as possible. I do not like how the ads use a nipple of a bottle however, since you can provide your baby breast milk through pumping and bottle feeding which works just the same as actually breastfeeding the baby. The final image is promoting increase monetary benefits from breastfeeding your baby. You will save money because breast milk is free and formula is expensive!
Now lets talk about place! The first image I chose is a great example of the social obstacle of breastfeeding in public. There has been numerous occasions when women breastfeeding their infants have been verbally and physically accosted. There are even incidents where the moms were arrested! This ad of the women in the dirty bathroom feeding her baby opens the public’s’ eyes to the injustice of a baby having to do a natural process in a bathroom stall. This is not necessarily a place as a marketing strategy but it is a good example of promoting acceptance of behaviors in all places which then will encourage more motivation to participate in the behavior of breastfeeding. The next image is an example of where you could reach the audience deciding and needing support while attempting to breastfeed. Hospitals are a great place to assist and encourage the audience you are trying to reach to breastfeed. Hospitals come into contact with a wide spectrum of audiences and tend to have good credibility in the community. There are also places in the community such as WIC which offers nutritional support to families of child bearing age. WIC deals with lower socioeconomic levels and also provides formula for free if the families qualify so this could definitely reach a target audience where the cost of formula is not a deterrent to breast milk. The final image is at a elementary school. Most families with children in elementary school are of child bearing age. It is also a large spectrum of the population, and it is also beneficial to educate children about breastfeeding for their influence on their families and their own personal choices later in life.
Today I am going to write about positioning. I was unfamiliar with the term in a public health realm but after the reading and class discussion I realize the importance of this social marketing step. With my interest in neonatology I decided to research positioning statements of neonatal nurses. The link provided is the position of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses on human milk availability in the NICU. This was a great example of a position statement I am passionate about. The position is below:
Human milk and breastfeeding play an important role in the growth of the vulnerable
infant. A top priority for neonatal nurses is to ensure that all families understand the
unique role that human milk plays in the health of their child. Neonatal nurses should
incorporate vigilant monitoring of the lactation experience as part of their daily care in
order to optimize success. Research‐based education on human milk and breastfeeding
for the mother who is pumping to provide human milk for her infant is also critical.
As I read through the positioning statement and the background information and the interventions that could support this statement. I realized that the positioning statement is for internal use only. This is the organization’s beliefs. This positioning statement is a benefits-focused position. Feeding infants in the NICU human milk decreases infant mortality.
Here is an ad about NEC. Necrotizing enterocolitis kills premature babies. As the ad states using human milk reduces the risk of NEC by 79%! This is a specific health condition that is chances of developing increases when the infant in the NICU receives cow or soy milk. This is an ad that supports the position of NANN. The position of NANN regarding human milk in the NICU is not only to avoid NEC but to support optimal physical and mental growth of the premature infant.
In the NANN human milk positioning statement mentions as well defined measures that NICU nurses can be involved in support of the positioning statement. Observing and supporting lactation as part of the NICU nurses daily services and to provide research based education on human milk and on breastfeeding to the parent. This supports the positioning and has designed the offering of NICU nurses and their focus when working with this specific population or target audience.
I like this positioning statement as an example because it has good parameters which helps keep people involved on track and also inspired. The target audience is very clear with the focus being on NICU infants and they’re mothers. There is also the term human milk used which opens up the door for donated human milk being used rather than formulas. So even if the mother is not interested in breastfeeding their are options to make the position very realistic and reachable. I named this blog post this is what I want to see to help remind myself that the postioning statement is an internal desire of what the campaign would like to see regardless of what marketing is utilized.
Today on my blog I wanted to look more into factors that influence behavior and adoption of behaviors. The video above is about the diffusion of innovation model. This model can be applied to lots of different groups of people. I found this video to be helpful in understanding the theory with a real life example. The example used is the trend of the iPad market from when it was invented and sold till 1 year later. I chose the title to this blog post “a little bit at a time” because if you focus on a smaller segment of people who you know are more likely to adopt the desired behavior then they can have influence on others who are less eager. This takes a lot of work off the campaign and makes it more effective! Which also benefits the campaign supporting faster timelines and decreasing costs.
The above video was a great way to learn more about the transtheoretical model or stages of change. In the video the desired change is identified and then all the action that needs to take place in order to support the desired change are demonstrated. This video is a great example of each stage, however you must remember that this is not a linear model. It can be but it can also be a spiral.
The stages are as follows….
Precontemplation stage- This audience is asleep. They may have thought about change for just an instant but went right back to where they were at with no further thoughts. This is not a good audience to focus on in a campaign. They are most likely going to behave like the late adopters in the innovation diffusion model and won’t easily make a change in behavior.
Contemplation stage: What I found interesting about this phase is the acknowledgment of a problem I think that is the best starting point for the path of change. There is no movement/action at this stage however they have admitted something is wrong. This audience is a better target audience for a campaign then the precontemplation stage. They may move into action if they are given more information/knowledge and also tools/incentives to start acting.
Preparation stage: This stage seems like the audience has internalized the problem and have realized that they are the ones who need to make the change. No one can do it for them. This audience seeks more knowledge about ways to change. I think this would be a great target audience for a health campaign. They seem like if you gave them some action plans, ( a quit line for stopping smoking) they would be more likely to jump at the opportunity because they are lining up their resources and defenses to support their change.
Action stage: This stage seems to be more of an externalized response to a problem or behavior. In this phase the audience lets the world know they are making a change. They throw items a way, and begin to commit to a new life. This would be a good target audience as well. They would mainly benefit from the reinforcement that what they are doing is good and also hard!
Maintenance stage: This stage seems like a reflective stage to me. In this face the audience is looking at all the benefits of the behavior change since they have experienced how it feels. This is when lapses can occur. They need to continue revisiting the benefits of the change to prevent them from lapsing. This would also be a good target audience. You may not get the statistical results with this audience since they are considered already changed however your campaign would be a reinforcement to them at a great stage of change. I think they would find more empowerment and self efficacy from the campaign which is a great thing!
Termination stage: This is the ultimate place to be! This audience is a great example to those in all of the other stages of change. They show the others that this change is possible and worth it! This audience would not benefit from the campaign as much as they would be a good role model for the campaign.
I thought it was also interesting how it was mentioned in the class reading and in the class discussion that the transtheorectical model is not a linear model.
You may go from the action phase to the precontemplation stage. Thinking of the model in that manner helps you realize that change is not a one way street. There are many thought processes and behaviors that direct change. There may be substitution of one behavior (nicotine gum instead of cigarettes) for another. There may be a small change that can eventually lead to a bigger change (smoking 4 cigarettes a day rather than a pack). The desire to change, the way the change is done, and the ability to continue with the change are all so variable from person to person. People are influenced by a multitude of factors and behavioral change has many internal factors as well. I have learned that this part of the campaign process is just as important as the design of the campaign. The labyrinth above is a good summary of this blog post. The labyrinth consists of many turns, many choices, and many paths and there is a center which I feel represents enlightenment. We can however leave and come back from enlightenment many times in our lives and we can take all kinds of wrong and right turns trying to get back to it! The image above also represents to me how there are many people on the journey and they are all heading in their own direction.
So now I am going to explore research options in social marketing. I think it is amazing how much research it takes to attempt to understand your target audience in a campaign. I also like the idea of pretesting potential strategies on an audience before investing or implementing a campaign. I also began to think about how with a smaller budget you could get the most bang for your buck with your primary research. I found the idea of crowd sourcing very new and exciting so I decided in this post to explore it further.
I discovered through my research that crowd sourcing is a way of obtaining services and ideas by soliciting input from a large group of people, for example an online community. While reading about crowd sourcing it seems the advantages are less cost, faster speed, and good diversity. Those all seem like great strengths for the research portion of a public health campaign.
I found an interesting article of using solicited artists talents to make AED systems more noticeable to people in public spaces. The public was solicited through all forms of media including social media. The participants could submit art or vote on art. There were monetary prizes if your art submitted was popular. I think this is a great idea and a majority of the design work and evaluation of the effectiveness of the design was completed by the public, saving money and time! Here is some of the images of the art submitted below:
The limitations of the crowd sourcing research method was that they could not gauge if there was an increase in public awareness of AEDs in public spaces, or in an increase in the usage of AEDs, or a decrease in cardiac arrest fatalities in public spaces. However I think that as a primary research method and having the product completed at a lower cost and voted on by a large group from the public saved cost and time for the beginning stages of the campaign. From there the campaign planners can move its focus to a target audience where AEDs are not being used and implement the product that was created for less cost.
Another article I discovered was about the effectiveness of testing health communication materials on multilingual populations. With involvement of technology the health information for a crowd sourcing research approach can be communicated via translation to all different languages. It just makes sense to me to develop one crowd sourcing module and to then translate it to whatever language is needed via technology rather than the expense of focus groups which include transportation, interpreter services, supplies etc. This again makes accessing diverse populations cheaper and faster!
I was encouraged from my research about the crowd sourcing for collecting primary data for public health campaigns. I think that with more advancement in technology, and with access to technology becoming more inexpensive and more of a social norm world-wide crowd sourcing will continue to grow and evolve as a primary research source. In the world of public health we need to continue to look for ways where the limited funding will go further. I think this is a great example of a potential way to do that! In the end public health campaigns consist of two main ingredients… Who is listening? and Who is acting?